Municipal solid waste become the main problem in Indonesia which internationally spotlight. In 2015, Jenna Jambeck has proofed stated that Indonesia is one of the top five countries that contribute to the plastic pollution in the ocean. In 2018, National Geography published that elevated to second position. According to the Indonesia Statistical Agency, this country is producing 64 mio tons of plastic waste every year which 85 thousand of the waste dumped to the ocean.
Government Regulation No 81/2012 explained that the municipal solid waste is managed by the district/city government. The regulation mentioned that the community is obliged to segregate the waste in the household. The government must provide waste collection and transportation system for all of the waste to the material recovery facility, and landfill. This system does not work properly due to the lack of facilities, law enforcement, and lack of community awareness. In order to improve the waste management system in this country, the government published Jakstranas Pengelolaan Sampah 2017 (Waste Management Policy 2017) which targeted 30% of waste reduced and 70% of waste managed in 2025.
A lot of effort has done to reduce the volume of waste flow to the ocean through community-based waste management assistance. The government has implemented Waste Bank and TPS3R (community-based sorting and processing facilities) since 10 years ago. However, the Adipura Secretariat Ministry of Environment (2015) stated that the Waste Bank program only reduce 2.39% of the waste which showed that the program yet success. In order to achieve 30% of waste reduced, the government must be supported by all stakeholders. Campaign to segregate the waste from the source must be conducted massively, so the number of people who manage the waste in proper waste increase.
PT Wahana Anugerah Energi developed waste collection and transportation system using smartphone application called Rapel which aimed to protect the environment. Rapel is campaigning of sustainable waste management in the household. At the moment, Rapel provide waste collection service especially for inorganic waste. The users are encouraged to segregate the waste each type as guided by the App, and they can post the valuable waste in the application. The waste collectors nearby will receive a notification, and he/she will book to pick the waste. The waste collector will pay for the valuable waste with the price that listed in the app. Both the collector and user will get point and reward from that activity.
The aim of Rapel is to develop sustainable waste management system from the upstream to the downstream. In the upstream, Rapel educates the community to manage the waste in proper way, and we provide waste collection system for segregated waste. In the downstream, we will build the recycling facility which will turn the waste into raw materials. Rapel will manage organic waste by turn it into energy using anaerobe digester when inorganic waste management success. Rapel will educate the community to understand the type hazardous waste, and Rapel will provide hazardous waste treatment facility in the next phase.
The role of Rapel in the Circular Economy
Environmental degradation has shifted the linear economy to a circular economy. A linear economy traditionally follows the “take-make-dispose” step-by-step plan. This means that raw materials are collected, then transformed into products that are used until they are finally discarded as waste. A linear economy will increase environmental pressure. Therefore, the circular economy concept is introduced to the industrial sector. Circular economy means a regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimised by slowing, closing, and narrowing energy and material loops. This can be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling. This definition emphasizes the leak of energy and materials through regeneration without produce of waste. In this system, the waste will be processed and turn into raw materials, so the environmental pressure can be decreased.
Rapel contributes to the implementation of circular economy in Indonesia. The collected waste will be sorted and managed in the recycling factory. The recyclable waste will be turned into raw materials. This picture showed the position of Rapel in the circular economy.
How does Rapel work in the circular economy?
- Rapel will educate the households to segregate the solid waste each type through provides waste collection system using smartphone application
- Rapel will provide waste bin (Rapel dropbox) which are specialized waste disposal units. The dropbox will be placed on various locations for easy accessibility to its users
- Apart from household, Rapel will collect all of the waste from hotel, industry, hospital, e.t.c
- The materials will go to Rapel processing facilities. The facilities will turn these waste materials into tangible and usable resources such as raw materials (pellet plastics), energy, metals, various materials, fuel, and fertilizers.